Англійська мова. Теорія і практика. Вживання часів

Ричард Грант
Англійська мова. Теорія і практика. Вживання часів

Рiзниця мiж The Past Simple i The Present Perfect

1. Говоримо чи не говоримо, коли щось сталося.

У Present Perfect має значення факт вчинення дії і не має значення, коли саме вона відбулася. У Past Simple зазвичай вказується, коли саме відбулася дія.

Слова-маркери у Past Simple: yesterday (вчора), in 2015 (в 2015)ago (тому назад), when I was younger (коли я був молодший) та інші.

I have ridden a horse! – Я їздив верхи! (неважливо, коли це було)

I rode a horse yesterday morning! – Вчора вранці я їздив верхи! (конкретний момент у минулому)

2. Закінчений період часу або поточний.

Якщо ми говоримо про період часу, який все ще триває, вживаємо Present Perfect. Часто на поточний період вказують такі слова-маркери, як today (сьогодні), this week (на цьому тижні)this month (в цьому місяці) i this year (цього року).

Якщо період закінчений, використовуємо Past Simple. На нього вказують наступні слова-маркери: last week (минулого тижня), last month (минулого місяця), last year (минулого року).

I haven’t seen you in the office this week. – Я не бачив тебе в офісі цього тижня. (тиждень не закінчився)

I didn’t see Sofie at work last week. – Я не бачив Софі на роботі минулого тижня. (минулий тиждень закінчився)

3. Зв'язок з теперешнiм часом і факт з минулого.

У Present Perfect завжди є якась прив'язка до сьогодення, тоді як за допомогою Past Simple можна просто викласти факти про минуле.

We’re so happy! We have learnt English! – Ми такі щасливі! Ми вивчили англійську! (ми щасливі зараз – прив'язка до сьогодення)

Ivan learned English at school. – Іван вчив англійську в школі. (факт з минулого)

Вправа 30

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. 2. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very early. 3. I (not yet to eat) today. 4. She just (to go) out. 5. It (to be) very cold yesterday. 6. She (to live) there last year. 7. Where you (to spend) your holidays? 8. He (not to eat) yesterday. 9. She (to leave) the room a moment ago. 10. When you (to meet) him? 11. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 12. You ever (to spend) your holidays in the Crimea? 13. You (to play) the piano yesterday?

Вправа 31

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. We (not yet to solve) the problem. 2. I (not to see) him since 2006. 3. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 4. While travelling in the Crimea, I (to meet) your friend. 5. You (to play) the piano today? 6. When it all (to happen)? 7. How many mushrooms you (to gather)? 8. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 9. I never (to visit) that place. 10. What you (to prepare) for today? 11. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o’clock the weather (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 12. Where you (to put) the newspaper? I want to read it, but cannot find it anywhere. 13. I (to buy) a pair of gloves yesterday.

Вправа 32

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. He (to visit) that place last year. 2. Look at this birdhouse. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it last Sunday. 3. Show me the dress which you (to make). 4. The new school (to begin) working last year. 5. The wind (to blow) off the man’s hat, and he cannot catch it. 6. I just (to get) a letter from Tom. 7. Where you (to put) my pen? I cannot find it. 8. Oh, how dark it is! A large black cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few minutes. 9. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I will go out. 10. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 11. You (to take) any photographs while travelling in the south? 12. You (to see) Mary today? 13. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor because of the wind.

Вправа 33

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. The building of the house (to begin) early in April. 2. The wind (to change) in the morning. 3. He (to be) abroad five years ago. 4. When you (to see) Mary? – I (to see) her last week. 5. When you (to open) the window? – I (to open) it ten minutes ago. 6. The rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 7. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 8. You (to be) in the Caucasus last year? 9. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 10. The sun (not to rise) yet, but the sky in the east is getting lighter every minute. 11. We already (to solve) the problem. 12. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot. 13. They (to leave) England when he (to be) still a child.

Вправа 34

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. Look at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 2. I (to see) you walking along the street the other day with a heavy bag. 3. He (to come) a moment ago. 4. I (to see) Pete today. 5. He (not yet to come) back. 6. He is not at school today, he (to fall) ill. – When he (to fall) ill? – He (to fall) ill yesterday. 7. I (not to read) the newspaper today. 8. I never (to speak) to him. 9. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 10. He (to go) already? 11. I already (to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk. 12. It is very late, and trams (to stop) running: we must find a taxi to get home. 13. He just (to finish) his work.

Вправа 35

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 2. When you (to see) him last? 3. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 4. How many times you (to be) to Toronto? 5. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dictation? 6. I just (to meet) our teacher. 7. I (not to see) him for ages. 8. He just (to come) home. 9. At last I (to translate) this article: now I will have a little rest. 10. What books you (to read) when you (to live) in the country? 11. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 12. His health (to improve) greatly since I (to see) him last. 13. He (to come) home a minute ago.

Вправа 36

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. We (to go) to the country yesterday, but the rain (to spoil) all the pleasure. 2. They (not yet to come) from the south. 3. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 4. You (to pass) your driving test yet? – Yes, I (to pass) it in May, but I (not to buy) a car yet. 5. Nick (to play) football yesterday. 6. My watch was going in the morning, but now it (to stop). 7. He (to be) ill last week, but now he (to recover). 8. I (not to see) you for a long time. I (to see) you in town two or three days ago, but you (not to see) me. I (to be) on a bus. 9. He already (to move). He (to find) a nice flat last Christmas and he (to be) there a year already. 10. She already (to come) from school. Now she is doing her homework. 11. The lecture (not yet to begin) and the students are talking in the classroom. 12. If everybody (to read) this new novel, let’s discuss it. 13. I (to read) this book last year.

Вправа 37

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect або Past Simple.

1. You (to book) tickets? – Yes, I …. I (to book) them several days ago. 2. I (to read) this book this year. 3. I can hardly recognize you. I (not to see) you since you (to leave) for Toronto. And you (to change) so much. 4. I never (to be) to Washington. 5. You (to read) all the books on this shelf? 6. You ever (to be) to New York? 7. I (not to see) my cousin since last year. 8. I don’t think you ever (to see) Niagara Falls. 9. Why you (to put) these things in the wrong place? 10. I (to invite) Linda to the party. – When you (to see) her? – I (not to see) her for ages. I (to call) her an hour ago. 11. Why you (to leave) the door open? You will catch cold sitting in the draught. 12. “We (not to meet) for such a long time!” said my friend. “Yes, indeed,” I answered, “and we both (to grow).”

Рiзниця мiж The Past Simple i The Past Perfect

Past Simple використовується, коли дії відбуваються в хронологічному порядку, а Past Perfect – коли потрібно показати, яка дія відбулося першою, раніше інших дій.

He started the car, turned the radio on and fastened the seat belt. – Він завів машину, включив радіо і пристебнув ремінь безпеки.

Дії описуються в хронологічному порядку: спочатку він завів машину, потім включив радіо і пристебнув ремінь безпеки.

He started the car, turned the radio on, but before he had fastened the seat belt. – Він завів машину, включив радіо, але перед цим пристебнув ремінь безпеки.

 

Дії описуються не в хронологічному порядку: спочатку він пристебнув ремінь безпеки, а потім завів машину і включив радіо.

Часто в подібних реченнях використовується слово when (коли).

When I got home, my son took my car. – Коли я прийшов додому, мій син взяв у мене машину.

When I got home, I found that my son had taken my car. – Коли я прийшов додому, я виявив, що мій син взяв мою машину.

Якщо з контексту зрозуміло, що одна дія відбулася раніше іншої, можна використовувати як Past Perfect, так i Past Simple. Часто зрозуміти контекст і черговість подій допомагають наступні слова-маркери: before (перед тим як, до того як), after (після того як), first (спершу, спочатку), as soon as (відразу після того як; як тільки)earlier (раніше) i iншi.

I didn’t worry about speaking in front of so many people. I gave public speeches earlier. – Я не переживав щодо виступу перед великою кількістю людей. Я і раніше виступав на публіці.

I didn’t worry about speaking in front of so many people. I had given public speeches earlier. – Я не переживав щодо виступу перед великою кількістю людей. Я і раніше виступав на публіці.

Вправа 38

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Past Simple або Past Perfect.

1. When the police … (to arrive), we already … (to catch) the thief. 2. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o’clock. 3. By two o’clock the teacher (to examine) all the students. 4. Jack … (to finish) the test before the bell … (to ring). 5. Tom (to return) from the cinema by five o’clock. 6. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (to leave) my report at home. 7. When Anna … (to come) to say good-night, her children already … (to fall) asleep. 8. I (to finish) my homework at seven o’clock. 9. My friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the exams successfully. 10. Scott already … (to prepare) the dinner when her husband … (to get) home from work. 11. I (to finish) my homework by seven o’clock. 12. Poor Oliver (to lie) unconscious on the spot where Sikes (to leave) him. 13. When Brad and Susan … (to get) married, they … (to know) each other for 3 years. 14. He (to think) that he (to lose) the money. 15. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) a good dinner.

Вправа 39

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Past Simple або Past Perfect.

1. He (to open) his eyes, (to look) around and (to try) to remember what (to happen) to him. 2. She … (not to enjoy) the film because she … (to read) the book before. 3. Ann (to tell) me that she (to see) an interesting film. 4. All the passengers (to see) at once that the old man (to travel) a great deal in his life. 5. Our apartment … (to be) in a mess because I … (to have) a birthday party the night before. 6. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner. 7. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home. 8. We … (not to go) to a restaurant because we … (to spend) all our money on clothes. 9. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework. 10. During the holidays my friend (to visit) the village where he (to live) in his childhood. 11. Mary … (can’t go skating) after she … (to break) her leg. 12. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books. 13. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin). 14. Larry … (to be) late because he … (to get) stuck in a traffic jam. 15. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before. 16. Yesterday I (to find) the book which I (to lose) in summer.

Вправа 40

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Past Simple або Past Perfect.

1. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me that she (to receive) a letter from grandfather. 2. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw). 3. Where you (to work) before you (to go) to university? 4. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) from the field. 5. He (to know) French before he (to visit) France. 6. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to wash) his hands. 7. Lanny (to say) that he (to get) his education in Cape Town. 8. The teacher (to understand) that Lena (not to do) her homework. 9. The boy (to want) to act the main part in the play because he (to organize) the theatre. 10. I (to know) that my friend (not yet to come). 11. Lanny (not to know) who (to attack) him in the darkness. 12. When I (to wake) up yesterday, father already (to go) to work. 13. The girl (to be) glad that she (to find) a seat near the window. 14. Nick (to think) that his father (not yet to come) home. 15. Suddenly he (to remember) that he (not to ring) her up in the morning. 16. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to leave).

Рiзниця мiж The Present Perfect i The Past Perfect

Present Perfect використовують для опису дії, яка завершилася до теперішнього моменту, в той час як Past Perfect – для дії, яка почалася і завершилася до певного моменту в минулому.

Основні слова-маркери Past Perfect i Present Perfectalready (вже)just (тільки що), since (з), yet (вже; ще не)ever (коли-небудь), for (на протягом).

He has already left, but you can call him and ask to wait for you. – Він уже пішов, але ти можеш йому зателефонувати і попросити почекати тебе. – Present Perfect – (дія завершилася до певного моменту в сьогоденні)

When I called the police, the thief had already gone. – Коли я подзвонив в поліцію, злодій вже втік. – Past Perfect – (дія завершилася до певного моменту в минулому)

I haven’t finished cooking yet. Can you, please, wait a bit? – Я ще не закінчила готувати вечерю. Можеш, будь ласка, трохи почекати? – Present Perfect – (дія завершилася до певного моменту в сьогоденні)

I hadn’t finished cooking dinner yet so he ate a sandwich. – Він прийшов додому дуже рано вчора. Я ще не закінчила готувати вечерю, тому він з'їв сендвіч. – Past Perfect – (дія завершилася до певного моменту в минулому)

We have been married for 20 years, and now he wants to get divorced. – Ми одружені 20 років, і тепер він хоче розлучитися. – Present Perfect – (дія завершилася до певного моменту в сьогоденні)

We had been married for 20 years and got divorced in 2018. – ММи були одружені 20 років і розлучилися в 2018. – Past Perfect – (дія завершилася до певного моменту в минулому)

Рiзниця мiж The Future Perfect, The Future Simple i The Future Continuous

Future Simple – щось станеться в майбутньому – говоримо про це як про факт, без акценту на тривалості або завершеності дії.

I will buy tickets for the concert tomorrow. – Я куплю квитки на концерт завтра.

He will talk to his boss as soon as he can. – Він поговорить з босом, як тільки зможе.

Future Continuous – дія почнеться в майбутньому і триватиме якийсь час – акцент на тривалості цієї дії.

I will be going home from work this time. – У цей час я йтиму з роботи додому.

I will be waiting for you. – Я буду тебе чекати.

Future Perfect – дія завершиться до певного моменту в майбутньому – акцент на результаті цієї дії.

They will have finished the project before the deadline. – Вони закінчать проект в строк.

We will have been best friends for 30 years by then. – На той час ми будемо друзями вже 30 років.

Рiзниця мiж The Present Perfect Continuous i The Present Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous – дія почалася якийсь час назад, тривала і все ще триває.

She has been playing volleyball since childhood. – Вона грає у волейбол з дитинства. Вона справжній професіонал.

I have been washing the car. I need to take a shower. – Я мив машину. Мені потрібно прийняти душ.

Present Continuous – дія відбувається зараз.

She is playing volleyball. Look – she is wearing black shorts and a white T-shirt. – Вона грає у волейбол. Подивися – на ній чорні шорти і біла футболка.

I am washing the car. Then I’ll have a shower. – Я мию машину. Потім я прийму душ.

Рiзниця мiж The Present Perfect Continuous i The Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous – акцент на тривалості дії. Неважливо, закінчилася дія чи ні.

I have been cleaning the kitchen all morning. I am very tired. – Я прибирала кухню весь ранок. Я дуже втомилася.

Mary is very studious. She has been doing homework all evening. – Мері дуже старанна. Вона робить домашнє завдання весь вечір.

Present Perfect – акцент на результаті дії. Дія виконана.

I have cleaned the kitchen. It is as good as new now. – Я прибрала кухню. Тепер вона як новенька.

She can go out because she has done her homework. – Вона може йти гуляти, бо зробила домашнє завдання.

Present Perfect Continuous – дія все ще триває або тільки що закінчилася. Можна задати питання how long? (як довго?).

I have been watching the last season of “Game of Thrones” since yesterday. – Я дивлюся останній сезон "Гри престолів" з учорашнього дня.

They have been hitchhiking for seven years. – Вони подорожують автостопом вже сім років.

Present Perfect – дію завершено. Можна задати питання how much? (скільки?)how many times? (скільки разів?)how often? (як часто?).

I have watched the last episode of “Game of Thrones” three times. – Я подивився останню серію "Гри престолів" три рази.

I have never hitchhiked in my life. – Я ніколи в житті не подорожував автостопом.

Рiзниця мiж The Present Perfect Continuous i The Past Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous – дія почалася в минулому і або все ще триває, або у неї є результат в сьогоденні.

What have you been doing all day today? – I have been working on a presentation for our next meeting. – Чим ти займався весь день сьогодні? – Я працював над презентацією для нашого наступного зібрання.

Past Continuous – дія відбувалася в певний момент в минулому.

What were you doing at 9 p.m. yesterday? – I was working on a presentation for our next meeting. – Що ти робив вчора о 9 годині вечора? – Я працював над презентацією для нашого наступного зібрання.

Рiзниця мiж The Future Perfect Continuous i The Future Perfect Simple

Future Perfect Continuous i Future Perfect Simple схожі, а іноді можуть бути взаємозамінними. Наприклад, у випадку з дієсловами, які не використовуються з часами Continuous: know, understand та іншими. Однак є між ними одна важлива відмінність – для Future Perfect Continuous важливо підкреслити тривалість дії, а Future Perfect Simple робить акцент на завершеності дії і її результаті.

By the end of the day I will have been reading for eight hours. – К кінцю дня я буду читати протягом восьми годин. – Future Perfect Continuous

By the end of the day I will have read 500 pages of the book. – К кінцю дня я прочитаю 500 сторінок книги. – Future Perfect Simple

I will have been working on this project for six months by the end of this year. – К кінцю року я буду працювати над цим проектом вже протягом шести місяців. – Future Perfect Continuous

I will have finished working on this project by the end of this year. – К кінцю року я закінчу працювати над цим проектом. – Future Perfect Simple

 

Запам'ятайте:

У додаткових реченнях часу і умови після сполучникiв if, when, as soon as, before, till/until, after замість майбутнього часу вживається теперішній час.

Вправа 41

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Continuous, Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. I (to play) chess tomorrow. 2. It (to be) cold in autumn. It often (to rain). A cold wind often (to blow). 3. You (to come) to my place next Sunday? 4. My sister (not to like) coffee. 5. I (not to play) chess tomorrow. 6. The weather (to be) fine today. It (to be) warm, the sun (to shine) brightly. A soft wind (to blow). Small white clouds (to sail) in the sky. 7. You (to read) this book next week? 8. When you (to go) to bed every day? 9. You (to play) chess tomorrow? 10. Don’t go out: it (to rain) heavily. 11. You (to read) books every day? 12. What he (to read) now? 13. He (to play) chess every day. 14. Take your raincoat with you. I am afraid it (to rain) in the evening and you (to get) wet through if you (not to put) it on.

Вправа 42

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Continuous, Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. You (to read) a book now? 2. What he (to read) every day? 3. He (not to play) chess every day. 4. Every spring birds (to come) to our garden and (to sing) in the trees. 5. I (not to see) him tomorrow. 6. What he (to read) tomorrow? 7. He (to play) chess every day? 8. Listen! Somebody (to sing) in the next room. 9. What you (to do) tomorrow? 10. You (to give) me this book tomorrow? 11. They (to play) chess now. 12. It usually (not to snow) at this time of the year. 13. What your friend (to do) tomorrow? 14. Where she (to be) tomorrow?

Вправа 43

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Continuous, Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. They (not to play) chess now. 2. What the weather (to be) like now? It (to snow)? – No, it … . 3. Where you (to go) next summer? 4. Where she (to go) tomorrow? 5. They (to play) chess now? 6. We (to go) out of town to ski on Sunday? – Yes, we … if it (to snow) this week and if there (to be) a lot of snow everywhere. 7. Where you (to go) every morning? 8. She (to go) to the country with us tomorrow? 9. Nick (to walk) in the park now. 10. What you (to do) tomorrow? – We (to go) out of town if the weather (not to change) for the worse. You (to come) with us? – With pleasure, if only I (not to have) too much work to do at home. 11. Where you (to go) now? 12. They (to stay) at home tomorrow. 13. Nick (to go) to school every day. 14. If we (to have) TV sets at our supermarket, they (to inform) customers about things in the store.

Вправа 44

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Continuous, Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. Look! Mary (to dance). 2. What you (to do) now? I (to see) that you (not to read). 3. Nick (to go) to school tomorrow. 4. If we (to play) music, it (to produce) the right atmosphere. 5. She (to dance) every day. 6. When you (to finish) your homework? It (to be) very late, it (to be) time to go to bed. 7. I (to miss) your excellent cooking! 8. If we (to put) in cameras, they (to stop) people stealing things. 9. She (to dance) tomorrow? 10. How you usually (to spend) evenings? 11. You ever (to buy) presents? 12. If we (to employ) more assistants, they (to help) our customers. 13. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow. 14. What you (to do) in the country next summer?

Вправа 45

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Continuous, Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. You (to think) it (to be) easy or difficult to choose the right presents for people? 2. We (to go) to school in the morning. 3. They (not to drink) tea now. I (to think) they (to watch) TV. 4. What present your mother (to receive) for her next birthday? 5. Look! Kate (to go) to school. 6. What your father (to drink) in the evening? 7. You (to help) your mother tomorrow? 8. When you (to get) up every day? – I (to get) up at seven o’clock. 9. I (not to play) the guitar now. 10. My brother usually (not to get) up at seven o’clock. As a rule, he (to get) up at six o’clock, but tomorrow he (to get) up at seven o’clock. 11. My brother (to play) the guitar every evening. 12. Why she (to come) home so late tomorrow? 13. They (not to take) care of the garden next summer. 14. We (to go) to the country the day after tomorrow.

Вправа 46

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Continuous, Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. You (to like) apples? 2. Our friends always (to go) to the country for the weekend. 3. You (to eat) apples tomorrow? 4. Look! The kitten (to play) with its tail. 5. Nick (to read) a lot of books. 6. Your parents (to watch) TV now? 7. Mother (to work) every day. 8. My sister (not to rest) now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen. She (to help) mother in the kitchen every day. 9. He (not to sleep) now. 10. Your brother (to go) to the exhibition next Sunday? 11. We (not to go) to the zoo tomorrow. 12. I (not to learn) the poem now. 13. She (to live) in San Francisco. 14. My father (to shoot) very well. 15. He is very strong. Look! He (to carry) a very heavy box.

Вправа 47

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у потрібному часі.

1. Before you (to cross) the park, you will come to a supermarket. 2. When you (to cross) the park, you will see the hospital. 3. If you (to translate) this article into English, I will use it in my report. 4. If she (to be) in Toronto now, she will meet you at the railway station. 5. If you (not to hurry), you will miss the train. 6. If it (to rain), we shan’t go to the country. 7. When my friend (to come) to Toronto, we will go to the Art Museum. 8. What will you be doing when he (to come) to your place? 9. Don’t forget to pay for your dinner before you (to leave) the canteen. 10. I will be able to translate this article if you (to give) me a dictionary. 11. You will have to work hard at home if you (to miss) the lesson. 12. Where will you go when you (to come) to London? 13. The child won’t be healthy if you (not to give) him much fruit. 14. I shan’t have dinner before mother (to come) home. 15. What will you do if you (not to finish) your homework tonight? 16. She will wait for him till he (to come) back. 17. What do you want to do after you (to leave) school? 18. I’ll call you as soon as I (to get) home from the hospital.

Вправа 48

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Simple або Future Simple. (Усі речення відносяться до майбутнього.)

1. If I (to stay) some more days in your town, I (to call) on you and we (to have) a good talk. 2. If the weather (to be) nice, we probably (to go) to the beach. 3. My grandmother is superstitious. She always says to me, “If you (to spill) salt, you should throw a little salt over your left shoulder. If you (not to do) this, you (to have) bad luck. If you (to break) a mirror, you (to have) bad luck for seven years.” 4. He (to go) to the Public Library very often when he (to be) a student. 5. If he still (to have) a cold and (not to feel) better, he (not to go) to a disco. 6. I (not to speak) to him until he (to apologize). 7. As soon as I (to return) from school, I (to ring) you up. 8. If you (to decide) to forget about your diet, you (to eat) a piece of wedding cake tomorrow. 9. Peter (to introduce) us to his friends as soon as we (to meet) them. 10. You (to pass) many towns and villages on your way before you (to arrive) in Toronto. 11. If I (to drink) too much champagne at my friend’s wedding, I (to get) a bad headache. 12. We (to go) to the station to meet Sergei when he (to come) to Toronto. 13. I (to stay) at home till she (to come). Then we (to go) to the theatre if she (to bring) the tickets. 14. If they (to go) to California next year, they (to visit) his friend in San Francisco. 15. Don’t go away until mother (to come) back. Give her the note as soon as she (to come).

Вправа 49

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Simple або Future Simple. (Усі речення відносяться до майбутнього.)

1. I (to go). 2. If she (not to work) properly, her boss (to fire) her and (to hire) my sister. 3. You (to go) to the library with us? – No, I …. I (to stay) here and (to help) Jane with her grammar. I (to come) to the library after I (to finish). 4. When he (to return) to Toronto, he (to call) on us. 5. I (to see) you before you (to start)? 6. Ring me up before you (to come). 7. If I (to see) him, I (to tell) him about their letter. 8. What he (to do) when he (to come) home? 9. I (to speak) to Mary if I (to see) her today. 10. We (to gather) at our place when my brother (to come) back from Africa. 11. Where they (to go) if the weather (to be) fine? 12. If you (to ask) me a difficult question, I (to be) nervous. If I (to be) nervous, I (to make) a mistake. If I (to make) a mistake, the other students (to laugh) at me. If the other students (to laugh) at me, I (to be) embarrassed. And if I (to be) embarrassed, I (to cry). So please don’t ask me a difficult question! 13. I (to sing) this song with you if you (to tell) me the words. 14. He (to ring) me up when he (to return) home. 15. I hope you (to join) us when we (to gather) in our country house the next time.

Вправа 50

Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Simple або Future Simple. (Усі речення відносяться до майбутнього.)

1. If it (to rain), we (to stay) at home. 2. What you (to do) when you (to come) home? 3. She (to walk) home if it (not to be) too cold. 4. When they (to cross) the road, they (to see) the hotel. 5. I am sure he (to come) to say goodbye to us before he (to leave) Toronto. 6. Before she (to get) to the theatre, she (to go) past the shopping centre. 7. Please turn off the light when you (to leave) the room. 8. What we (to do) if it (to rain) tonight? 9. If we (to be) tired, we (to stop) at a small village halfway to Toronto and (to have) a short rest and a meal there. 10. What she (to do) if she (to see) her best friend again? 11. If you (to miss) the 10.30 train, there is another at 10.35. 12. If the bus (to be) very crowded, you (to be) exhausted by the time you (to get) to work. 13. She (to make) all the arrangements about it before she (to fly) there. 14. If it (to be) very cold tonight, our car (not to start) in the morning. 15. Before he (to start) for London, he (to spend) a week or two at a holiday resort not far from here. 16. He (to watch) videos after he (to finish) his homework.

Вправа 51

Перекладіть на англійську мову, вживаючи дієслова у Present Simple або Future Simple.

1. Він зробить вправи з англійської мови, якщо у нього не буде інших справ. 2. Якщо я не допоможу йому, він завтра не напише контрольну роботу. 3. Він не піде в бібліотеку сьогодні ввечері. 4. Якщо він не піде в бібліотеку, він буде вдома. 5. Ми будемо вдома завтра. 6. Якщо ми будемо вдома завтра, ми подивимося цю програму по телевізору. 7. Завтра її не буде вдома. 8. Якщо її завтра не буде вдома, залиш їй записку. 9. Завтра погода буде хороша. 10. Якщо завтра погода буде хороша, ми поїдемо за місто. 11. Коли вона приходить до школи, вона знімає пальто. 12. Коли вона прийде в школу, вона зніме пальто. 13. Як тільки він згадує цю кумедну сцену, він починає сміятися. 14. Як тільки він згадає цю кумедну сцену, він почне сміятися. 15. Я прийду додому о шостій годині. 16. Коли я прийду додому, я подзвоню вам. 17. Вона подзвонить нам ввечері. 18. Якщо вона подзвонить вам, попросіть її принести мені книгу. 19. Я побачу Тома завтра. 20. Як тільки я побачу Тома, я розповім йому про це. 21. Я поїду в Париж наступного тижня. 22. Перед тим як я поїду в Париж, я подзвоню вам.

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